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This article summarises the partial results of a research project whose basic aim was to propose a Risk assessment Complex model for industrial establishments under the Seveso II Directive in the European Union. The proposed model simplifies the implementation of the Seveso Directive’s obligations within the Slovak Republic. Following the development of the Complex model, the project team analysed approaches, methods and techniques for risk assessment for each phase of the Complex model. The Complex model uses a simple software tool iMotylik which contains 33 bow-tie diagrams for creating scenarios. The Project team then tested the Complex model by applying it to industrial processes in two Seveso establishments in the Slovak Republic.

Created by: University of Žilina

The authors deal with the importance and significance of fire retardants for fire protection in practice. The main aim of this paper is to inform the readers about the possibilities of wood modifications by fire retardants. The authors present the experiment of testing wood specimens applying the experimental scientific method of test for limited flame spread on the test bench under laboratory conditions. The results of the experiment represent fire-technical characteristics that describe the wood behavior during the process of combustion. Different types of fire retardants are evaluated according to the selected evaluation criterion - the weight loss of test specimens. The conclusion summarizes the results of the experiment and recommendations for fire retardant modification in practice.

Created by: University of Žilina

In this article we describe a project “Competency Based e-Portal of Security and Safety Engineering” – eSEC portal approved by The Education, Audio-visual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA), developed in the period between 10/2009 and 10/2012. The eSEC portal is one of 10 centralised multilateral projects approved in 2009 by EACEA and only one with the University of Zilina as a coordinator, with total budget 356.138 Euros. The EACEA is responsible for the management of certain elements of the EU's programs in the fields of education and culture. The idea for the eSEC project originated from the demand to increase the quality of education in the field of security and safety. One of the key problems of the education is disparity between the knowledge received from educational institutions and the practical requirements. It is necessary to redefine how students are prepared for the challenges of the labour market: identifying competencies that are currently in demand and how it would be possible to link the educational systems of various institutions more efficiently. The aim of the eSEC project was to develop the competencies of students, teachers, researchers and professionals working in the field of security and safety, within the EU and the world. To achieve these objectives, an electronic portal was developed at www.esecportal.eu. The portal was launched in May 2012, hopefully starting the way to become an established and well known Internet portal on the security and safety education. Keywords: Competency Based e-Portal, Security Education, eSEC.

Created by: University of Žilina

Although most explosives detection equipment has been focused on explosives based on nitro- compounds because of their using in terrorist attacks interest in the chlorates and perchlorates as a base for explosives dates back to the 18th century when Berthollet attempted to make a powerful gunpowder. Although the main focus has been put for many years for explosives within the group of black powder and mixtures alike it on nitrate as the bearer of oxygen that is required to trigger the explosive decomposition [1] Later it began to study also the possibility of replacing nitrate by other substances rich in oxygen, which would be also useful for the manufacture of explosives for civil or military use. This group of compounds includes, among others, chlorates, perchlorates, and esthers of hypochlorous, chloric, and perchloric acid. Today, unfortunately, it is not necessary to consider these compounds only in terms of official military or civilian uses, but also in the context of increasing frequency of terrorist attacks the question of the abuse possibility of mentioned salts and esters to such dangerous activities is pushed to the fore. The article deals with the production, physical - chemical properties and the possibility of misuse for terrorist purposes.

Created by: University of Žilina

Combustible dusts in food industry are a significant risk, especially with regard to their explosion. Under certain specific circumstances it may occur in food companies very quickly and damage that can be caused by such explosions, mostly climb to huge amounts. Loss of life or injury of workers´ health are no exception. Therefore it is important to pay attention to fire-technical characteristics of combustible food dusts to protect against emergencies as a result of the explosion. The article deals with the characteristics of combustible dusts, especially the fire-technical characteristics, as well as with an explosion protection in food business.

Created by: University of Žilina

In everyday life, play important role rescue services such as fire-fighters, paramedics and police. Rescuers at their work oftenforgot on their own security. Overall, this problematic is neglected in these services, whether it's a matter of law but in practice,especially in the intervention itself. This issue is important for the protections of life rescue themselves, but also rescued. In manycases, the imperfect process of each rescue activity or the use respectively not use of personal protective equipment. The actuallegislation in the Slovak republic does not specify procedures for each activity respectively to the general definitions of eachactivity. In this article, we specify a group of fire-fighter and respect the basic rules of OSH in their activities such as fire, trafficaccident, natural disaster, and many others.

Created by: University of Žilina

Dynamical development of technologies is a result of man’s desire to achieve higher living standard. Themodern technologies are becoming still more complicated and may lead to industrial accidents. Slovakrepublic has its own history of industrial accidents. Risk management activities and spending of funds toprevent major industrial accidents is far from being popular among public and government unless some crisisevent occurs. Safety in industrial plants is being improved and modified as a result of growing number ofindustrial accidents. Implementation of SEVESO II directive in EU member countries is fundamental forserious industrial accidents prevention. The need for risk assessment and management is supported also bythe investigations on the European but also on national level. In this paper the selected conclusions whichaffect the adoption and adaptation of the legal environment in the Slovak Republic are based on a statisticalresearch realized during 2012–2013 in the framework of the MOPORI project.Based on the results achieved in the framework of the statistical survey, the results were implemented inthe Comprehensive Model for the Risk Assessment and Management of the Industrial Processes. The issuewas to insert the methods to individual steps of the comprehensive model which were implemented into themodel on the basis of the legal requirements and results of the survey. The analysis of the questionnaireyielded some interesting conclusions which have not been included in this paper, not only due to its extent,but also due to the need to bring the results the attention of as wide a group of readers as possible andmaintain its consistency and clarity. These unpublished results will be used as the base for achieving furthergoals of the MOPORI project.

Created by: University of Žilina

Fire resistance testing is intended to provide criteria and verification methods for stopping of fire spread between fire compartments. It has been used with success for this purpose for decades. The principle, testing schemes, and criteria do not provide information about tenability conditions in adjacent fire compartments however. This drawback has become increasingly obvious as fire safety engineering started to make it possible to evaluate tenability conditions using data on smoke emissions from construction materials and products, and as construction products with potency to emit significant amounts of opaque and toxic effluents found the way to building systems including those providing fire resistance. Findings of fire resistance testing of six non-loadbearing walls made of commonly used composite metal faced sandwich panels, two filled with mineral stone wool as core insulation (MW), and four filled with polymer polyisocyanurate (PIR) insulation material, demonstrated these effects. The project has been recently expanded by additional measurements of gas and particle effluents. This paper deals with new information reflecting back on original test results.

Created by: University of Žilina

The risk management of natural hazards is a complex issue often due to very significant potentialconsequences and substantial uncertainties. A framework for risk based decision making in the field ofengineering is first described in this paper. This framework is then applied for the risk assessment of volcanichazards. Towards this end, aspects related to the modeling of the hazard process due to volcanoes are described.A system of classification of structures and identification of different building characteristics that could be usedfor volcanic vulnerability and risk assessment is then proposed. This is followed by a discussion on the fragilityand vulnerability modeling of structures. Finally, general issues concerning the evaluation of risks and theirtreatment and communication are discussed.

Created by: Aalborg University

Following the devastating consequences of the Banda Aceh with the Earthquake followed by thetsunami in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, focus has been directed towards the high vulnerability andlow robustness of the affected societies, infrastructure and natural resources in regard to natural hazards.A proposal for an ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) lead project in partnership with AIT (the AsianInstitute of Technology) and ADPC (the Asian Disaster Prevention Centre) is presented. The aim of the projectis on a medium to long term to improve the basis for sustainable management of risk due to natural hazardsthrough improved decision support tools, improved understanding of the risks, knowledge dissemination andeducation. A risk management framework is proposed considering three distinct decision situations namely,before, during and after the event of a natural hazard. Use of the risk management framework is envisaged toprovide decision support for decision makers at international, national, regional as well as municipal levels.Furthermore the decision support tool may also greatly enhance education and training as it facilitates that theconsequences of various risk management strategies may be quantified and compared.

Created by: Aalborg University

The present paper considers the application of Bayesian Probabilistic Networks (BPN’s) in risk manage-ment for portfolios of structures subject to earthquake hazards. The BPN’s facilitate that risks are assessed in a generic framework using indicators to relate the generic representation to the specific condition prevailing a given site, soil conditions, structure class, occupancy, etc. Initially a summary of previous workin the area of earthquake risk management is provided. Thereafter the general problem framework for management of earthquake risks is introduced for three different decision situations; before, during and after an earthquake. Following this, a basic introduction on BPN’s is provided and it is outlined how the concept of indicators provides an efficient means of representing risks generically and for updating generic models in accordancewith site specific information. A generic structural modelling framework is described which facilitatesthe automatic generation of input files for non-linear structural response analysis using the open source finiteelement software OpenSees. This framework makes it possible in a straight forward manner to analyse andgenerate vulnerability curves for several structure classes with a minimum use of man-hours.
The application of the methodology is illustrated considering the decision problem of whether or not to ret-rofit a specific class of structures. The structures within the considered class represent low-rise, bare frame re-inforced concrete structures located on a site close to the western part of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. The example describes how vulnerability curves are produced for both original and retrofitted structures andbased on a simplified consequence model illustrates how the BPN’s can be used to support decision making.

Created by: Aalborg University

The present script serves as study guidance for the students taking the course on Risk and Safety in Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering. It provides information concerning the: Aim of the course, Structure and organisation of the course, Educational support material for the course, Mode of examination, Lecture notes for each of the 13 lectures with bibliography and index.

Created by: Aalborg University

This paper presents recent developments on methodologies for the assessment andmanagement of risks due to natural hazards. First a review is made on system characteristicscommonly applied in the field of natural hazards risk management at large scale. Thereafter, ageneral model framework is proposed for the representation of consequences and knowledgebased on recent developments within the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Theproposed framework explicitly accounts for two significant characteristics of systems, namelyindicators and conditional dependencies. This in turn suggests that when using this framework aBayesian statistical framework for risk assessment is advantageous and it is shown how genericBayesian risk models may be formulated to facilitate the analysis using Bayesian ProbabilisticNets (BPN’s). It is outlined and discussed how the proposed model framework may be applied forrisk management problems considering natural hazards at large geographical scales. Finally anexample is provided on the application of the framework based on recent and ongoing research onmanagement of risks due to earthquakes.

Created by: Aalborg University

This paper presents the numerically achieved results for the fire resistance of several types of floor structures which are mostly used in our residential and rural buildings and in same time fulfill the energy efficient criteria, as: semi-prefabricated reinforced concrete slabs system FERT and STIRODOM (with infill of extruded polystyrene -XPS), timber-concrete composite floor structure and traditional timber floor structure. The solid RC slab was analyzed only for comparison. Using the computer programs SAFIR and FIRE, the effect of the intensity of the permanent and variable actions and the effect of the thermal isolation on the fire resistance of simply supported slabs were analyzed. The fire resistance was defined with respect to the criteria of usability of the structures in fire conditions, according to Eurocodes. Fire spread through the facades is widely recognized as one of the fastest pathways of fire spreading in the buildings. Numerical simulation of external fire on a facade was done. The fire resistance of RC wall, with and without thermal insulation, was defined and the negative effect of the extruded polystyrene, as external insulation, in comparison with the rock wool insulation is presented.

Created by: Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

The prediction model used for defining fire resistance of reinforced concrete columns exposed to standard fire from all four sides is presented in the paper. The proposed model relies on the concept of artificial neural networks, in which numerical analysis results are used as input parameters. A brief description of the modelling process is given, and an appropriate example of the neural network prognostic model is presented.

Created by: Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

The behavior of a particular reinforced concrete structure that was fire exposed after seismic action is presented in this paper. The seismic response of the structure is evaluated using a pushover analysis, while the displacement demand under the corresponding seismic event is determined using the recommendations implemented in Eurocode 8. The earthquake-induced damage in the structure is determined and, as next step, the structure is exposed to Standard fire ISO 834. For that purpose the program FIRE, based on FEM, is used. The program FIRE carries out the nonlinear transient heat flow analysis and nonlinear stress-strain response associated with fire. The solution technique used in FIRE is a finite element method coupled with time step integration. The computer modulus FIRE-T solves the governing differential equation of heat transfer in conduction. The response of a reinforced concrete elements and plane frame structures exposed to fire is predicted by modulus FIRE-S. This modulus accounts for: dimensional changes caused by temperature differences, changes in mechanical properties of materials with changes in temperature, degradation of sections by cracking and/or crushing and acceleration of shrinkage and creep with an increase of temperature. Pushover analysis, representing dynamic effects of an earthquake via static nonlinear procedure, is incorporated in the program as an option that precedes the postearthquake fire analysis.

Created by: Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

Financial instruments have been recognized as an important mechanism for the disaster risk management in the field of climat change adaptation. This paper analyzes the importance of insurance as a financial instrument for reducing the socio-economic vulnerability of societies to the impacts of natural disasters caused by climate variability. Inovative insurance solutions have been recognized as a chance for developing countries, in their struggle and efforts to reduce poverty and adapt to constant climate variability.

Created by: University of Novi Sad

Different emergencies, chronic or acute, such as climate change, as well as the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events caused by climate change, have led to an increase in population vulnerability. Adapting to climate change and a reduction of the influence of catastrophic events on ecosystems has become a focus of interest of various sectorial policies. Education is an important element for decreasing vulnerability to climate change, hazards, and emergencies. At the Faculty of Technical Sciences at the University of Novi Sad, at the educational program Disaster risk management and fire safety, students learn about the multidisciplinary aspects of the field of impact reduction of disastrous events. This paper focuses on the importance of integrating fundamental concepts of disaster risk management into educational systems, and also emphasizing, at the aforementioned academic program, the importance of public health as an important element of building communal resiliency.

Created by: University of Novi Sad